The Breathtaking Photography Project Inspired By A Jewish Town – The Wisdom Daily

See the photography novella, “Once Upon A Time In Kazimierz” by Richard Tuschman and read about the special town that inspired his work.

Source: The Breathtaking Photography Project Inspired By A Jewish Town – The Wisdom Daily

Kazimierz was once an island, situated in the middle of the Vistula river, south of Krakow. It was called different things, but in 1335, King Casimir III (1310 – 1370) – also known as The Great – called it Kazimierz, after himself. He thought it would be a fine spot for a university, which he envisaged would bring glory to Poland. Jagiellonian University, as it came to be known, did indeed bring glory to Poland – with the likes of Copernicus etc. – but not from Kazimierz. Rather, in 1399 King Vladislaus Jagiello (c1352 – 1434) began building the university within the walls of Krakow’s Old Town; in an area that was populated by Krakow’s Jews, who were encouraged to leave as the university expanded.

In 1495, amid growing religious intolerance and mercantile jealousy – and fire having destroyed much of the Jewish quarter the previous year – the Jews were officially expelled from Krakow proper and forced to relocate to nearby Kazimierz.

The re-settlement in Kazimierz came on the eve of the Golden Age of Polish Jewry, which lasted well into the 17thcentury; and, though unique, was part of the intellectual flowering experienced by both Poland and Europe as a whole. Central to the Jewish Golden Age was the Yeshiva system, which fostered the maturation of Talmudic scholarship. Kazimierz, the site of Poland’s first Yeshiva, set up by Rabbi Ya’akov Pollak c1509, was, for a time, the cultural and spiritual center for Jewish life in Poland.

Kazimierz’s poor and religious did not survive the Holocaust; theirs are lives lost forever because there are none to recount their secret histories. As you walk the streets of Kazimierz, you can taste the loss and the holiness and the silence of anguish. It fixes in the mind and burrows deep in the heart, yearning for expression. Nowhere is that expression more beautifully rendered than in the work of Richard Tuschman.

Tuschman sets his photographic novella in pre-war Kazimierz, telling the story of an ordinary family in deep personal crisis. Pregnant with Kazimierz’s emotional residue, each picture melts into the viewer with its delicious saturation and alluvion sorrow. The handmade dioramas, touching in their detail, swathe the human drama they contain in luminescent grief; as the people, set deep in their tiny worlds, succumb to grief’s power to unravel that which was bound. For the viewer, the impending doom of history thumps in the heart and whispers “even your personal tragedy can be stolen from you.”

Shalom Italia

Yesterday, I had the great privilege of attending the World Premiere of Shalom Italia, a brand new documentary by Israeli film maker  Tamar Tal Anati, at the American Film Institute Silver Theater in Silver Springs, Maryland.

shalomitaliaThe movie tells the story of the three Anati brothers, ages 73, 82 and 84, who set off on a journey to find a cave in the woods of Tuscany, Italy.  This cave is the place where they remember hiding as children with their entire family to escape the Nazis. Each brother has a different recollection of the events that took place some 70 years ago, and each brother approaches this adventure differently.  This delightful movie overlays the humorous interaction between the three brothers with a reflection on the importance of memories on our lives.

I could not help but draw a parallel with the story of my parents who were both hidden during the war and survived the Holocaust as well.  My father was hidden on a farm, not unlike the three brothers picture in the movie.  My mother lived under and assumed Christian name while her parents lived hidden in a basement.  Like the Anati brothers, my parents owed their lives to the generosity and courage of Christian men and women who protected them during the war.  My mother kept a very close relationship with her saviors, the George family, until her death.  Like the Emmanuel Anati, my parents and my grandmother were always reluctant to speak about this period of their lives, perhaps repressing these memories.

Following the showing, we had the great fortune of having a question and answer session with Tamar, the film maker and with Reuven who traveled for the Premiere. This was a great moment that added to the significance and pleasure of the event.  The movie is expertly edited, and professionally put together. I would highly recommend that you look for any showings in your area.  In the meantime, enjoy the trailer below 🙂

 

The Antwerp Bible

The Antwerp Bible (its official name is “Biblia Sacra, Hebraice, Chaldaice, Graece et Latine: Philippi II. reg. Cathol. pietate, et studio ad sacrosanctae ecclesiae vsum, Christoph Plantinus excud.“) was printed between 1568 and 1573 by Christopher Plantin in Antwerp (now Belgium.)

The Catholic king of Spain Philip II financed the project and sent Spanish theologian Benito Arias Montano to Antwerp to watch over its translation in five languages.  The Bible comprises eight volumes and was printed in 1100 copies.

  • The first four volumes contain the Old Testament. The left page has two columns with the Hebrew original and the Latin translation, the right page has same text in Greek with its own Latin translation. Underneath these columns there is an Aramaic version on the left-hand page and a Latin translation of this on the right-hand side.
  • Volume 5 contains the New Testament in Greek and Syriac, each with a Latin translation, and a translation of the Syriac into Hebrew.
  • Volume 6 has the complete Bible in the original Hebrew and Greek, as well as an interlinear version that has the Latin translation printed between the lines.
  • The last two volumes contain dictionaries (Hebrew-Latin, Greek-Latin, Syriac-Aramaic, grammar rules, list of names, etc.) that were of value to scholars.

For printing the Hebrew text Plantin used among others Daniel Bomberg’s Hebrew type, which he had received from Bomberg’s nephews. Bomberg was a Christian printer and publisher of Hebrew works. He was born in Antwerp and died in Venice in 1549.  After having learned from his father, Cornelius, the art of printing and of type-founding, he went to Venice, where, from 1517 to 1549, he published many editions of Hebrew works.

A complete copy of the Antwerp Bible is on display at the Plantin-Moretus Museum (the site of the original printing press), including the typefaces which were designed for this project.

Photo: http://drc.usask.ca/projects/archbook/archbook_admin/images/FisherG-10_00137.jpg

33 Great Israeli Jazz Artists…

For a country of some 7.5 million, Israel has a surprisingly large jazz footprint. More and more internationally acclaimed jazz musicians happen to be from the country. [NPR]  Twenty-five or so years ago, the Thelma Yellin High School of the Arts based in Giv’atayim, like many arts magnet schools, became known as a jazz incubator. The Rimon School for Jazz and Contemporary Music started up in 1985, and developed an affiliation with Berklee College of Music in Boston.  Well known U.S. jazz musician Arnie moved to Israel in 1997, where he founded the International Center for Creative Music, an education facility open to both Jewish and Arab students.

A bit of research went into this post.  Click on each artist’s name to play a YouTube sample featuring that artist.  In a few weeks, I will put together a YouTube playlist of all this links, that should make it easier to listen. Enjoy!

 Artist
(Click for music)
———————– Quick Bio
Omer Avital omer avital Omer Avital was born in 1971 in Givatayim to Moroccan and Yemeni parents.  After spending a year in the Israeli Army Orchestra, he moved to New York in 1992 where he began playing, recording and touring professionally.
Or Bareket Or Bareket Or Bareket grew up in Argentina and Israel, and now lives in Brooklyn, New York. Or was the 1st Prize winner of the 2011 International Society of Bassists’ Jazz Competition. He has worked with Ari Hoenig, Jean-Michel Pilc, The 3 Cohens, Don Friedman, Eliot Zigmund, Billy Hart, Victor Lewis, David Feldman and many others.
Roni Ben-Hur roni benhur Roni Ben-Hur is an Israeli jazz guitarist who emigrated to the United States in 1985. His parents were originally from Tunisia. His 2004 book, Talk Jazz: Guitar from the Mel Bay Talk Jazz series is now out of print and much sought after by jazz guitarists.
Dekel Bor dekel bor Dekel Bor started playing guitar at age 15 and moved to Copenhagen at the age of 19. At 21, Bor moved to New York to attend The New School on a full scholarship. Bor was seriously injured[1] in a motorcycle accident in August 2015. All of his scheduled performances and appearances were canceled or postponed at that time, at least until spring 2016.
Amir Bresler amir bresler Amir Bresler was born in Rishon-Letzion, Israel on November 8th, 1989. He started his musical education at the age of 13, spending three years with teacher Avi Zehavi and has since studied with Eitan Itzkovitch, and others. In 2010 Amir Joined the world renowned bass player, singer and composer Avishai Cohen, in concerts globally.
Anat Cohen anat cohen In 1996, Anat Cohen studied clarinet and saxophone at the Berklee College of Music. She has also recorded with her brothers Avishai Cohen (trumpeter) and Yuval Cohen (alto and soprano saxophonist). She was voted Clarinetist of the Year in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 by the Jazz Journalists Association
Avishai Cohen (Bassist) avishai cohen b One of the better known Israeli jazz artists, Avishai Cohen was born in 1970 in Kibbutz Kabri. He began playing the piano at 9 years old, but changed to the bass guitar at the age of 14. He eventually moved to New York, and in 1996, joined the Chick Corea sextet Origin. He currently performs with his own group, the Avishai Cohen Trio.
 Avishai Cohen (Trumpet) avishai cohen t Cohen was born in Tel Aviv, Israel. He grew up in a musical family with sister Anat and brother. At the age of eight, he asked his mother for trumpet lessons. As a Teenager Avishai Toured with The Israeli Philharmonic Orchestra.  Avishai went to the Berklee jazz school in Boston and now lives in New York.
Eli Degibri Eli Degibri Eli Degibri was born in 1978 in Yaffo.  Degibri first began playing the mandolin at age 7. In 1994, then 1997, Degibri was selected to receive a full scholarship to attend the Berklee College of Music and moved to the U.S.  On August 29, 2013, he released his sixth album, Twelve, featuring Gadi Lehavi, Ofri Nehemya, and Barak Mori.
Daniel Dor Daniel Dor Daniel was born 1986 in Tel-Aviv. While Daniel’s first musical lessons were at the piano, he was fascinated with the drum-set from an early age and began taking private lessons at the age of 10. Daniel’s work is featured on Avishai Cohen’s highly acclaimed new record “From Darkness.”
Shauli Einav Shauli Einav Shauli was born in 1982 in the countryside of Israel and started playing the violin at the age of 4. At 13 he switched to the saxophone and started playing with many Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv based bands. Einav recently relocated to Paris after 7 fruitful years in the vibrant jazz scene of NYC.
Oran Etkin Oran Etkin At age 14, Etkin began his musical studies in Boston with the saxophone. He studied Arabic music in Jerusalem. His exposure to Malian music is also a significant influence, having played in Mali with Toumani Diabaté, Super Rail Band, and Habibe Koité.
Anat Fort Anat Fort Anat Fort was born in 1970 near Tel Aviv. She is an Israeli jazz, pianist and composer who has recorded several acclaimed albums and performed across Europe and the United States.  She moved to New York in 1996 to develop her skills in jazz improvisation under the guidance of pianist Paul Bley and study composition with Harold Seletsky.
Aaron Goldberg Aaron Goldberg Aaron Goldberg was born in Boston. He began taking piano lessons at 7, and started playing jazz when he was 14. In November 2014, Goldberg released The Now, a 10-song album of his own compositions, jazz standards, and reworkings of Brazilian songs.
Gilad Hekselman Gilad Hekselman Gilad is the winner of the 2005 Gibson Montreux International Guitar Competition. He has played all major jazz clubs in New York City including the Blue Note, The Jazz Standard, Dizzy’s Club and Smalls.
Tamir Hendelman Tamir Hendelman Tamir moved to the US at age 12 in 1984, winning Yamaha’s national keyboard competition 2 years later at age 14. Concerts in Japan and the Kennedy Center followed.   In his own trio, he explores standards, Brazilian music, blues and his Israeli roots.
Nitai Hershkovits Nitai Hershkovits Born in Israel to a Morrocan mother and a Polish father, Nitai started playing the clarinet at age 12, only to discover his love for the piano at age 15.  Nitai has been collaborating with internationally acclaimed bassist and composer Avishai Cohen.
Yaron Herman Yaron Herman Yaron Herman was born in Tel Aviv. He moved to Boston, where he intended to attend the Berklee College of Music but rapidly preferred to start his career in Paris.
Ori Kaplan Ori Kaplan Ori Kaplan is a jazz saxophonist and a music producer who moved from Israel to the United States in 1991.  In 2004 he formed Balkan Beat Box with Tamir Muskat. The band has been touring globally since and has released 4 albums thus far.
Assaf Kehati Assaf Kehati Jazz guitarist and composer Assaf Kehati arrived to the USA from Israel in 2007.  Mr. Kehati has performed at some of the world’s leading venues including the Blue Note; the DC Jazz Festival; MuzEnergo Jazz Festival, Tel Aviv Museum, Barranquilla Jazz Festival; and Toronto Jazz Festival.
Avi Lebovich Avi Lebovich
Avi Lebovich was born in Yahud, Israel and began studying classical piano at age 9. When he reached 13, he switched to the trombone and attended the “Thelma Yellin School of Arts”.  He moved to New York in 1992, where he attended “New School University” and “Mannes College of Music”.
Shai Maestro Shai Maestro Pianist Shai Maestro was born in Israel on February 5th 1987. He began playing classical piano at the age of 5. Maestro joined Avishai Cohen’s Trio together with drummer Mark Guiliana where he played for 5 years around the globe.  In 2011, Maestro left Cohen’s group to pursue his own career as a band leader.
Rafi Malkiel Rafi Malkiel Born in Jerusalem in 1972, Malkiel currently resides in New York where he has established himself as a mainstay on that city’s jazz and Latin music.  Malkiel’s critically acclaimed debut album “My Island” features original compositions and his arrangements of popular Latin and jazz classics.
Dan Mayo Dan Mayo Dan Mayo was born in Israel in 1990. He is a drummer, composer and educator well known for his playing and composing with TATRAN, a power-trio with Tamuz Dekel on guitar and Offir Benjaminov on the bass.
Omri Mor Omri Mor Omri Mor was born in 1983 and raised in Jerusalem. He studied classical music at the Jerusalem Rubin Academy of Music. He studied Andalousian-style music with Nino “Elmaghribi” Biton.  He plays regularly in jazz festivals in Israel and abroad.
Ziv Ravitz Ziv Ravitz Ziv Ravitz was born in Beersheba and focused on percussion at the ripe old age of 13.  He lives and works in New York, and recently released the album Everyday with Yaron Herman.
Issi Rozen Issi Rozen Issi Rozen is an Israeli-born jazz guitarist currently residing in Boston, Massachusetts. He has been recognized for mixing traditional middle-eastern and straight jazz elements into his music. In 2002, Rozen began teaching guitar and music theory at Berklee College of Music.
Harold Rubin Harold Rubin Harold Rubin is a South African-born Israeli visual artist and free jazz clarinettist.  He moved to Israel in 1962. Rubin returned to playing jazz in late 1979, having previously given up performance for more than a decade after his emigration from Africa.
Yotam Silberstein Yotam Silberstein Tel Aviv native Yotam Silberstein began playing guitar at age 10. By the age of 21, Silberstein has won the coveted “Israeli Jazz Player of The Year.”  Yotam Silberstein moved to New York in 2005.   He has won the Sundance Time Warner award for film music.
Ofir Shwartz Ofir Shwartz Ofir Shwartz was born in Haifa. He is an Israeli award-winning jazz pianist, composer, arranger and producer.  He is one of the leading Israeli touring musicians.
Asaf Sirkis Asaf Sirkis Asaf was born in 1969 in Petah-Tikva, Israel. At the age of 12 Asaf began drum lessons, while also having a strong interest in playing electric bass. In October 1998, Asaf left Israel and settled in London in April 1999. He soon become part of the UK Jazz and world music scene.
Assif Tsahar Assif Tsahar Assif Tsahar was born in Israel in 1969. He is a tenor saxophonist and bass clarinetist. He has lived in New York City since 1990.  He founded the label Hopscotch Records in 1999. In 2006 he opened the music club Levontin7 with Daniel Sarid in Tel Aviv.
Sam Yahel Sam Yahel A Hammond B-3 specialist, keyboardist Sam Yahel is a progressive musician with a bent toward mixing expansive post-bop and cerebral organ trio funk . Since moving to New York City in 1990, Yahel has performed and recorded with a wide array of name musicians.

 

Rabbi Jacob… (Jews in Paris in the 13-14th Century)

My francophone friends will look at the title of this post and immediately think of the movie “The Mad Adventures of Rabbi Jacob” (French: Les Aventures de Rabbi Jacob) featuring the great Louis de Funès.

But this is about another Rabbi Jacob!

This Kosher Pizza joint in the Marais Jewish neighborhood of Paris was likely not a XIIIth Century establishment…

Jewish life in the Paris region in the middle ages was a veritable roller coaster.  Local edicts would allow Jews to live in Paris, only to be reversed 20 years later.  Yet, Jewish communities would re-establish themselves quickly, principally along trade routes.  In 1182, King Philippe II ( Auguste) seizes the debts owed to Jews and their real estate, forcing synagogues to become churches.  Jews are called back in 1198.  They are partially expulsed in 1253, but a royal order gives them access to old cemeteries and synagogues.

In 1272, there are signs of Yeshivots on the right bank of the Seine. In 1283, Phillipe le Hardi, Duke of Burgundy, enabled the community to expand somewhat.  During the 13th Century, there were about 4,500 to 7,500 Jews or 3% to 5% of the total population of about 150,000.  Yet, 20 years later, the Jews were driven out of Paris by Philippe le Bel in 1306.

This brings us to the cemetery at the rue Pierre-Sarrazin…

ruepierresarrasin18981.jpeg

The building under which the Jewish Cemetery was found. (Photo dated 1898)

In 1849, during work on a building belonging to Louis Hachette on the Rue Pierre-Sarrazin, about 80 headstones were uncovered, belonging to a Jewish cemetery dating back to the XIIth Century.  This large cemetery was contemporary to a prosperous era for the Jewish community of Paris.

What about Rabbi Jacob?

One of the most amazing headstones found at the cemetery of the Rue Pierre-Sarrazin is that of Rabbi Jacob, son of Rabbi Haïm. (see below)

85-004665

Inscription
Traduction (Nahon, 1986)

זאת מצבת קבו[רת]
ר[בי] יעקב ב[ן] הר[ב]
חיים שנפטר
לגן עדן יום א
פרשט אמר
שנת שלשה
עשר לפרט
תנבה

This is the headstone of
Rabbi Jacob son of Rabbi
Haïm who left us for
the garden of Eden the first day
of the parasha Emor
in the year three
ten of the computus 
May his soul be bound up in the bond of life

The headstone was discovered in 1849 and given to the Museum of Cluny in Paris (Museum of the Middle Ages), cataloged in 1912, and given to the Paris Museum of Jewish Art and History.  The estimated date of Rabbi Jacob’s death is April 17, 1253.

Conclusion…

Jewish life survived the Middle Ages despite incredible odds.  Communities were regularly pushed from one place to another, losing their fortunes, places of worship and cemeteries.  The headstones found under the Hachette building on the Rue Pierre-Sarrazin are a miracle of history.  And the history told through them enables us to better appreciate the struggles and the extraordinary resilience of our people.

The oldest synagogue in the United States

TouroSyn_credit

The story of the Touro Synagogue reveals the complexity and beauty of Jewish history, and the ability of the Jewish people to adapt in order to survive, a couple of themes that I have highlighted on several occasions in this blog.  The story of its community spans the Western Hemisphere, dating back to the Middle Ages, and played a significant role in the independence of the United States.

The Touro Synagogue

The Touro Synagogue is located in of Newport, Rhode Island on the East Coast of the U.S., a 2-hour drive from Boston, Massachusetts.  The synagogue was dedicated in 1763 and as such is considered to be the oldest synagogue in the United States.  The synagogue is considered one of the ten most architecturally distinguished buildings of 18th century America and the most historically significant Jewish building in the United States.The synagogue was designated a National Historic Site in 1946.  It still serves an active congregation and each year greets over 30,000 visitors who come to see the magnificent interior and hear its remarkable story. 1280px-Touro_Synagogue_National_Historic_Site_TOSY1087

Services at Touro Synagogue are orthodox and follow the Nusach Sefard liturgy.  At its dedication in December 1763, the Touro Synagogue was the center of Jewish life in Newport. It anchored the community during the height of
Newport’s prosperity and stood through the town’s near destruction in the Revolutionary War. As it approaches its 250th anniversary, the Synagogue remains a vital part of the Jewish community in Newport and serves as the home for Congregation Jeshuat Israel, the spiritual descendants of the congregation that built it.

Origin of the Congregation

In 16touro-synagogue-national-historic-site-158, the small but growing colony of Newport, Rhode Island received its first Jewish residents. Fifteen families came from Barbados, seeking the greater religious tolerance that Rhode Island offered.  These families were descendants of  ‘Marranos’ who fled the Inquisitions in Spain and Portugal that had migrated from Amsterdam and London to Brazil and then the islands of Suriname, Barbados, Curaçao and Jamaica.   By 1677, the community realized the need to acquire land for a Jewish cemetery. Two of the original immigrants, Mordechai Campanal and Moses Israel Paeheco, purchased the lot at the corner of what is now Kay and Touro Streets for this purpose.

Marranos

Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Portuguese Jews (Sephardim) enjoyed unparalleled freedom, wealth and power. They occupied key positions in government, academia, and commerce, and especially the professions of medicine, science and law.  In 1496, King Manuel of Portugal tried to keep his most learned, creative and productive subjects, not to mention his personal physician, tailor, royal mathematician, royal astronomer, his government financiers, etc.  He encouraged “his” Jews to convert to Christianity. He tried to persuade and cajole them, even bringing converted rabbis from Spain to preach to them.  The New Christian secret Jews became known as Marranos, from the Portuguese “marrar”, i.e. forced, or from the Aramaic-Hebrew Mar Anus, a forced one.  The philosophers Baruch Spinoza, Frances Sanches, Uriel Acosta, Montaigne, and David Ricardo were all Marrano descendants.  Indigenous Marranos did survive nearly 300 years following the Inquisition. In 1920, Samuel Schwarz, a Polish engineer working in Portugal, encountered a community of Marranos in the interior of Portugal (Belmonte) who had managed to preserve some of the secret rituals, including prayers, of their ancestors.

George Washington gets in the act…

Marranos who came to the American colonies were free to profess their Judaism.  Aaron Lopez, the wealthiest merchant of the thirteen colonies was born Duarte Lopez in Lisbon.  He provided money and ships to George Washington during the War of Independence.

The United States won and became independent and politically free, but would there also be religious freedom?  On 17 Aug 1790, Moses Seixas of the Touro Congregation wrote to George Washington, asking him for assurance in the new political climate.  President Washington replied, promising that the United States would never support religious bigotry or persecution:

…The Citizens of the United States have a right to applaud themselves for having given to mankind examples of an enlarged and liberal policy: a policy worthy of imitation.  All possess alike liberty of conscience and immunities of citizenship.  It is now no more that toleration is spoken of, as if it was by the indulgence of one class of people, that another enjoyed the exercise of their inherent national gifts.”

And then he went further:

…while every one shall sit in safety under his own vine and fig tree, and there shall be none to make him afraid.

Washington’s commitment has remained a cornerstone of American values.  His letter “To the Hebrew Congregation in Newport,” written a year before the Bill of Rights was ratified, is on display at the Touro synagogue.

The Letter From George Washington to the Hebrew Congregation in Newport, Rhode Island, 21 Aug 1790

The Letter From George Washington to the Hebrew Congregation in Newport, Rhode Island, 21 Aug 1790.

Inscription marking the entrance to the Touro Cemetery (Newport, Rhode Island) - photo credit: Peter Radunzel

 

Morenica

Morenica  (Morenika or La Morena) is a favorite Sephardic wedding song that was likely composed before the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492.  The song was documented in 1625 in Gonzalo Correa’s book “Arte de la lengua castellana española” .  The song is a testament to the rich Jewish culture that existed in Spain before the Inquisition and the tradition that brought words and music to the modern era.

The sailors call me “dark one”; if they call me once more, I will go with them

The song, composed in so-called Judeo-spanish, is about a “dark girl”, a brunette whose skin has been darkened by the sun – in fact a poetic figure that is common to old Spanish poetry.  The song ends with “Morena a mi me llaman los marineros; Si otra vez me llaman, me voy yo con ellos. [The sailors call me “dark one”; if they call me once more, I will go with them”]. Some historians (Margit Frenk among others) believe that the song may be inspired by a similar dark girl mentioned in the Biblical “Song of Songs” (1:5).

The first video features 3s Amis, a world music group (Bruna Sardo – voice, Samuele Lorenzini – guitar, and Alberto de Grandis – drums). The second video features well-known Israeli bassist and composer Avishai Cohen.

References:

Frenk, Margit. (1987). Corpus de la lírica popular hispánica (Siglos XV a XVII). (Nos. 138-142). Madrid.
Weich-Shahak, S. (2006). En Buen Siman! Panorama del Repertorio Musical Sefaradi. Jerusalem: Pardes.
Ascher, Gloria J. (2001). Sephardic Songs, Proverbs, and Expressions: A Continuing Tradition”. Shofar: An Interdiscipliary Journal of Jewish Studies, 19,4: 25-39.

http://www.jewishfolksongs.com/en/jewish-folklore#morenica

————————————-

Morenika, they call me
my skin was pure white
from the fire of the summer sun
I am dark
Chorus:
Morenika
so very beautiful
in your eyes – a burning fire
my heart is all yours
Morenika , they call me
all those who go down to the sea
if again they call me
I will go with them again
Morenika, they call me
son to the ruling king
if he calls me again
I will follow him