The Amazing Travails of Tobias Cohn, Inventor of Modern Medicine

Eleazar Cohn, a Jewish physician, emigrated from Safed (then part of the Ottoman) to Poland in the late 1500’s – early 1600’s.  Eleazar’s son, Moses, also a physician, moved to Metz, France to escape the Chmielnicki (Khmelnytsky ) pogroms.  Tobias Cohn (Cohen, or Kohn in Polish) was born in 1652 in Metz.  At age 21, Tobias returned to Poland with his elder brother where he pursued traditional Jewish studies  in Kraków .

First Jewish Student in Germany

Portrait_of_Tobias_Cohn_Wellcome_L0014928Coming from a renowned family of physicians, Tobias ultimately wanted to graduate with a medical degree from the University of Padua (Margalith, 2007,) the Harvard of the time…  But he decided to try to get into the Frankfurt-an-der-Oder University first.  In 1678, Tobias and his friend Gabriel Felix of Brody appealed directly to the Grand Elector of the State of Brandenburg Friedrich Wilhelm who agreed to sponsor their studies.  The scholarships came with conditions: Tobias and Gabriel had to learn German and volunteer as Hebrew teachers to Friedrich Wilhelm. Wilhelm was interested in “going back to the sources” of the Old Testament, spurred by the Protestant Reformation. Tobias Cohn later wrote that his knowledge of the Scriptures, the Talmud and the Midrash had not prepared him well for the scientific approach that was taught at the school and for the interactions with other students [1]

Padua

Related imageTobias and Gabriel eventually left Frankfurt for Padua, where they joined a number of Jewish students from Italy, Poland and other European countries at Solomon Canegliano‘s (1642-1719) preparatory school. Tobias described Canegliano as one of the greatest physicians of his time.  Tobias and Gabriel eventually entered the University of Padua and graduated in June 1683.  The first Jewish medical students graduated from the University of Padua in the fifteenth century.  For most of the Middle Ages and the early Modern Period, Padua was the only medical school in Europe where Jewish students could study freely.

Ma’aseh Tuviyah, 1708

In 1700, Tobias Cohn completed the manuscript of his book “Ma’aseh Tuviyah,” meaning Tobias’ Works, or Opus, in Hebrew.  The book was officially published in June 1708 (or 1707) by the University of Padua.  The book was printed a total of five times in Venice between 1708 and 1850, followed by seven further editions most recently in Brooklyn, New York, in 1974, and in Jerusalem, in 1967 and 1978.

The book brings together a view of the “new sciences” with the traditional Jewish view of science and medicine.  The first part of the book covers five chapters:

  • ‘The Upper World’ (corresponding more or less to metaphysics),
  • ‘The World of the Spheres’ (astronomy),
  • ‘The Lower World’ (geography),
  • ‘The Little World’ or ‘Microcosm’ (ethnography), and
  • ‘The Foundations of the World’ (alchemy).

The second part includes three main chapters:

  • ‘A New Land’,
  • ‘A New House’ and
  • ‘The House Watch’ or ‘Guard’.

This corresponds to the traditional division of medical texts into three parts: physiology, pathology and therapy (limited here to hygiene). A third part includes:

  • ‘A Garden Enclosed’ (gynecology and obstetrics),
  • ‘Fruit of the Womb’ (pediatrics), and
  • ‘A Fountain Sealed’ (on sterility).

The chapter titles in the first part of the book relate to the idea of the “world”, and those of the second part to the theme of novelty and the house. The headings in the third part all derive from the Bible, particularly the Song of Songs (Lepicard.) The book also includes a section on medical botany and a list of remedies.

The House Metaphor

Another important feature of the book is the scientific and medical illustrations it provides.

s130

The illustration above is part of a chapter on pathology in the medical part of the book, the section entitled ‘A New House’.  To the left of the illustration is the figure of a man with an open chest and abdomen, exposing the main internal organs.  A Hebrew scroll separates this figure from that of a house with four floors on the right of the illustration (Lepicard.)  In accordance with common practice in anatomy texts of the period, the organs are marked with letters.  On the scroll, the letters, in alphabetical order, are followed by the name of the designated part of the house, and that of the corresponding organ.

Where is the heart?  The reference letters and accompanying text show that the cauldron is located in the kitchen of the house. It represents the stomach. The heart is on the floor above, hidden behind a latticework grille. The heart belongs on the upper floor as Tobias said, where it can benefit from fresh air without being too exposed.  The “kitchen” level below corresponds to the bodily functions as understood at the time.  Tobias’s decision to write his book in Hebrew was likely driven by his desire to bring the “new science” to his Jewish community.

On the Road Again…

After Padua, Tobias Cohn went back to Poland and practiced medicine for a while then moved to Adrianopole (today’s city of Edirne close to Turkey’s borders with Greece and Bulgaria.)  There, he became the physician to five Ottoman sultans (Muntner, 2007,) moving to Constantinople (Today’s Istanbul) then Jerusalem in 1724 until his death at the age of 77 in 1729.

 

Footnotes and Sources

[1] Louis Lewin, The Jewish students at the University of Frankfurt an der Oder, in: Yearbook of the Jewish Literary Society 14 (1921), S. 231 f See also Richarz, entry, p.34…

David Margalith, Cohn, Tobias ben Moses, in: Encyclopedia Judaica: Bd. V, Detroit 2  2007, S. 44 f.; Asher Salah, La République des Lettres. Rabbins, écrivains et médecins juifs en Italie au XVIII siècle, Leiden/Boston 2007, S. 182-184.

Carsten Schliwski, Tobias Kohen (1652-1729) – the first Jewish student in Germany: Tobias Kohen as a Jewish student in Germany, from: Andreas Speer, Andreas Berger

A convincing case for accepting that Tobias Kohen and his friend were in fact the first Jewish student (Lewin, students, S. 222-226.)

Tobias Kohen, Ma’asseh Tuviyyah. Vol. 1, Venice 1707, pp. 5b.  The Library of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America owns a first edition of Maaseh Tuviah, with the call number of RB 144:4. The book was published in Hebrew and consists of one volume containing multiple works, for a total of 321 pages.

 

David B Ruderman, Jewish thought and scientific discovery in early modern Europe, Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 2001(c. 1995), pp. 100–17, 229–55.

For biographic information, see also J O Leibowitz, ‘Tobie Cohen, auteur médical de langue hébraïque (1652–1729)’, Revue d’Histoire de la Médecine Hébraïque, 1964, 63: 15–24.

Solomon Conegliano, ‘Preface to Ma’aseh Tuviyah’ (in Hebrew), in Tobias Cohen, Ma’aseh Tuviyah, Venice, 1708. It is not unusual to find 1707 as the date of publication. The Hebrew date (tav-samekh-zayin – 5467) can correspond both to 1707 and to 1708.

D. Kaufmann, ‘Trois docteurs de Padoue: Tobias Moschides – Gabriel Selig b. Mose-Isak Wallich’, Rev. Etudes Juives, 1889, 19:293-298.

D. Kaufmann, ‘Une lettre de Gabriel Felix Moschides’, Rev. Etudes Juives, 1896, 32: 134-137.

Figure 1. Tobias Cohn (1652-1729). From T. Cohn, Ma aseh Tobivvah. Venice, Stamparia Bragadina, [1708], front. engr. (Copy in the Wellcome Institute Library, London.)

Advertisements

To Life! – Le’ Chaim!

Recent scientific news tell us something our ancestors already knew:  life is precious, life is rare!   On this day of remembrance, let us praise life.  Let us praise the Godly and magical concept of life that brings us all here together: humans and animals and plants.

Let us acknowledge that we are all products of life, first and foremost by smiling at one another!  Today! Smile at your goldfish, at your tomato plant, at your neighbors and at strangers.,

Let us remember kindly those who brought us life, our parents and their parents and their parents.  Let us remember the innocents of all nations and all faiths who perished at the hands of others,

Let us acknowledge our difference of opinions but recognize the miracle of life that unites us all.

To life, Le’ Chaim!

Anti-Semitism being ‘normalised’ in Poland, Jewish Congress warns

Source: Anti-Semitism being ‘normalised’ in Poland, Jewish Congress warns

The European Jewish Congress expressed “grave concerns” Thursday over an increase in anti-Semitic acts in Poland under the rightwing Law and Justice government.

“There has been a distinct normalisation of antisemitism, racism and xenophobia in Poland recently and we hope that the Polish government will stem this hate and act forcefully against it,” EJC president Moshe Kantor said in a statement.

The group cited a proliferation of “fascist slogans” and unsettling remarks on social media and television, as well as the display of flags of the nationalist ONR group at state ceremonies.

Such incidents “appear to have coincided with the Polish government closing its communications with the official representatives of the Jewish community,” Kantor said.

According to the congress, it has been around a year since a senior Polish minister met with leaders of the Union of Jewish Communities in Poland, which represents the fewer than 10,000 people who belong to Jewish organisations in the country of 38 million people.

Poland was once home to Europe’s largest Jewish population, numbering around three million people, or 10 percent of the Polish population in 1939.

But only about 300,000 survived the Second World War after Nazi Germany occupied Poland and set up the death camp Auschwitz-Birkenau on its territory.

Earlier this year, University of Warsaw’s Centre for Research on Prejudice found that acceptance for anti-Semitic hate speech — especially among young Poles on the internet — had risen since 2014.

The study, released in January, found that 37 percent of those surveyed voiced negative attitudes towards Jews in 2016, up from 32 percent the previous year, while 56 percent said they would not accept a Jewish person in their family, an increase of nearly 10 percent from 2014.

Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/news/world/anti-semitism-being-normalised-in-poland-jewish-congress-warns/article/501334#ixzz4rN1HVOTz

The Breathtaking Photography Project Inspired By A Jewish Town – The Wisdom Daily

See the photography novella, “Once Upon A Time In Kazimierz” by Richard Tuschman and read about the special town that inspired his work.

Source: The Breathtaking Photography Project Inspired By A Jewish Town – The Wisdom Daily

Kazimierz was once an island, situated in the middle of the Vistula river, south of Krakow. It was called different things, but in 1335, King Casimir III (1310 – 1370) – also known as The Great – called it Kazimierz, after himself. He thought it would be a fine spot for a university, which he envisaged would bring glory to Poland. Jagiellonian University, as it came to be known, did indeed bring glory to Poland – with the likes of Copernicus etc. – but not from Kazimierz. Rather, in 1399 King Vladislaus Jagiello (c1352 – 1434) began building the university within the walls of Krakow’s Old Town; in an area that was populated by Krakow’s Jews, who were encouraged to leave as the university expanded.

In 1495, amid growing religious intolerance and mercantile jealousy – and fire having destroyed much of the Jewish quarter the previous year – the Jews were officially expelled from Krakow proper and forced to relocate to nearby Kazimierz.

The re-settlement in Kazimierz came on the eve of the Golden Age of Polish Jewry, which lasted well into the 17thcentury; and, though unique, was part of the intellectual flowering experienced by both Poland and Europe as a whole. Central to the Jewish Golden Age was the Yeshiva system, which fostered the maturation of Talmudic scholarship. Kazimierz, the site of Poland’s first Yeshiva, set up by Rabbi Ya’akov Pollak c1509, was, for a time, the cultural and spiritual center for Jewish life in Poland.

Kazimierz’s poor and religious did not survive the Holocaust; theirs are lives lost forever because there are none to recount their secret histories. As you walk the streets of Kazimierz, you can taste the loss and the holiness and the silence of anguish. It fixes in the mind and burrows deep in the heart, yearning for expression. Nowhere is that expression more beautifully rendered than in the work of Richard Tuschman.

Tuschman sets his photographic novella in pre-war Kazimierz, telling the story of an ordinary family in deep personal crisis. Pregnant with Kazimierz’s emotional residue, each picture melts into the viewer with its delicious saturation and alluvion sorrow. The handmade dioramas, touching in their detail, swathe the human drama they contain in luminescent grief; as the people, set deep in their tiny worlds, succumb to grief’s power to unravel that which was bound. For the viewer, the impending doom of history thumps in the heart and whispers “even your personal tragedy can be stolen from you.”

Shalom Italia

Yesterday, I had the great privilege of attending the World Premiere of Shalom Italia, a brand new documentary by Israeli film maker  Tamar Tal Anati, at the American Film Institute Silver Theater in Silver Springs, Maryland.

shalomitaliaThe movie tells the story of the three Anati brothers, ages 73, 82 and 84, who set off on a journey to find a cave in the woods of Tuscany, Italy.  This cave is the place where they remember hiding as children with their entire family to escape the Nazis. Each brother has a different recollection of the events that took place some 70 years ago, and each brother approaches this adventure differently.  This delightful movie overlays the humorous interaction between the three brothers with a reflection on the importance of memories on our lives.

I could not help but draw a parallel with the story of my parents who were both hidden during the war and survived the Holocaust as well.  My father was hidden on a farm, not unlike the three brothers picture in the movie.  My mother lived under and assumed Christian name while her parents lived hidden in a basement.  Like the Anati brothers, my parents owed their lives to the generosity and courage of Christian men and women who protected them during the war.  My mother kept a very close relationship with her saviors, the George family, until her death.  Like the Emmanuel Anati, my parents and my grandmother were always reluctant to speak about this period of their lives, perhaps repressing these memories.

Following the showing, we had the great fortune of having a question and answer session with Tamar, the film maker and with Reuven who traveled for the Premiere. This was a great moment that added to the significance and pleasure of the event.  The movie is expertly edited, and professionally put together. I would highly recommend that you look for any showings in your area.  In the meantime, enjoy the trailer below 🙂

 

The Antwerp Bible

The Antwerp Bible (its official name is “Biblia Sacra, Hebraice, Chaldaice, Graece et Latine: Philippi II. reg. Cathol. pietate, et studio ad sacrosanctae ecclesiae vsum, Christoph Plantinus excud.“) was printed between 1568 and 1573 by Christopher Plantin in Antwerp (now Belgium.)

The Catholic king of Spain Philip II financed the project and sent Spanish theologian Benito Arias Montano to Antwerp to watch over its translation in five languages.  The Bible comprises eight volumes and was printed in 1100 copies.

  • The first four volumes contain the Old Testament. The left page has two columns with the Hebrew original and the Latin translation, the right page has same text in Greek with its own Latin translation. Underneath these columns there is an Aramaic version on the left-hand page and a Latin translation of this on the right-hand side.
  • Volume 5 contains the New Testament in Greek and Syriac, each with a Latin translation, and a translation of the Syriac into Hebrew.
  • Volume 6 has the complete Bible in the original Hebrew and Greek, as well as an interlinear version that has the Latin translation printed between the lines.
  • The last two volumes contain dictionaries (Hebrew-Latin, Greek-Latin, Syriac-Aramaic, grammar rules, list of names, etc.) that were of value to scholars.

For printing the Hebrew text Plantin used among others Daniel Bomberg’s Hebrew type, which he had received from Bomberg’s nephews. Bomberg was a Christian printer and publisher of Hebrew works. He was born in Antwerp and died in Venice in 1549.  After having learned from his father, Cornelius, the art of printing and of type-founding, he went to Venice, where, from 1517 to 1549, he published many editions of Hebrew works.

A complete copy of the Antwerp Bible is on display at the Plantin-Moretus Museum (the site of the original printing press), including the typefaces which were designed for this project.

Photo: http://drc.usask.ca/projects/archbook/archbook_admin/images/FisherG-10_00137.jpg

33 Great Israeli Jazz Artists…

For a country of some 7.5 million, Israel has a surprisingly large jazz footprint. More and more internationally acclaimed jazz musicians happen to be from the country. [NPR]  Twenty-five or so years ago, the Thelma Yellin High School of the Arts based in Giv’atayim, like many arts magnet schools, became known as a jazz incubator. The Rimon School for Jazz and Contemporary Music started up in 1985, and developed an affiliation with Berklee College of Music in Boston.  Well known U.S. jazz musician Arnie moved to Israel in 1997, where he founded the International Center for Creative Music, an education facility open to both Jewish and Arab students.

A bit of research went into this post.  Click on each artist’s name to play a YouTube sample featuring that artist.  See full length clips in the comment section below. Feel free to add your own.  Enjoy!

 Artist
(Click for music)
———————– Quick Bio
Omer Avital omer avital Omer Avital was born in 1971 in Givatayim to Moroccan and Yemeni parents.  After spending a year in the Israeli Army Orchestra, he moved to New York in 1992 where he began playing, recording and touring professionally.
Or Bareket Or Bareket Or Bareket grew up in Argentina and Israel, and now lives in Brooklyn, New York. Or was the 1st Prize winner of the 2011 International Society of Bassists’ Jazz Competition. He has worked with Ari Hoenig, Jean-Michel Pilc, The 3 Cohens, Don Friedman, Eliot Zigmund, Billy Hart, Victor Lewis, David Feldman and many others.
Roni Ben-Hur roni benhur Roni Ben-Hur is an Israeli jazz guitarist who emigrated to the United States in 1985. His parents were originally from Tunisia. His 2004 book, Talk Jazz: Guitar from the Mel Bay Talk Jazz series is now out of print and much sought after by jazz guitarists.
Dekel Bor dekel bor Dekel Bor started playing guitar at age 15 and moved to Copenhagen at the age of 19. At 21, Bor moved to New York to attend The New School on a full scholarship. Bor was seriously injured[1] in a motorcycle accident in August 2015. All of his scheduled performances and appearances were canceled or postponed at that time, at least until spring 2016.
Amir Bresler amir bresler Amir Bresler was born in Rishon-Letzion, Israel on November 8th, 1989. He started his musical education at the age of 13, spending three years with teacher Avi Zehavi and has since studied with Eitan Itzkovitch, and others. In 2010 Amir Joined the world renowned bass player, singer and composer Avishai Cohen, in concerts globally.
Anat Cohen anat cohen In 1996, Anat Cohen studied clarinet and saxophone at the Berklee College of Music. She has also recorded with her brothers Avishai Cohen (trumpeter) and Yuval Cohen (alto and soprano saxophonist). She was voted Clarinetist of the Year in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 by the Jazz Journalists Association
Avishai Cohen (Bassist) avishai cohen b One of the better known Israeli jazz artists, Avishai Cohen was born in 1970 in Kibbutz Kabri. He began playing the piano at 9 years old, but changed to the bass guitar at the age of 14. He eventually moved to New York, and in 1996, joined the Chick Corea sextet Origin. He currently performs with his own group, the Avishai Cohen Trio.
 Avishai Cohen (Trumpet) avishai cohen t Cohen was born in Tel Aviv, Israel. He grew up in a musical family with sister Anat and brother. At the age of eight, he asked his mother for trumpet lessons. As a Teenager Avishai Toured with The Israeli Philharmonic Orchestra.  Avishai went to the Berklee jazz school in Boston and now lives in New York.
Eli Degibri Eli Degibri Eli Degibri was born in 1978 in Yaffo.  Degibri first began playing the mandolin at age 7. In 1994, then 1997, Degibri was selected to receive a full scholarship to attend the Berklee College of Music and moved to the U.S.  On August 29, 2013, he released his sixth album, Twelve, featuring Gadi Lehavi, Ofri Nehemya, and Barak Mori.
Daniel Dor Daniel Dor Daniel was born 1986 in Tel-Aviv. While Daniel’s first musical lessons were at the piano, he was fascinated with the drum-set from an early age and began taking private lessons at the age of 10. Daniel’s work is featured on Avishai Cohen’s highly acclaimed new record “From Darkness.”
Shauli Einav Shauli Einav Shauli was born in 1982 in the countryside of Israel and started playing the violin at the age of 4. At 13 he switched to the saxophone and started playing with many Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv based bands. Einav recently relocated to Paris after 7 fruitful years in the vibrant jazz scene of NYC.
Oran Etkin Oran Etkin At age 14, Etkin began his musical studies in Boston with the saxophone. He studied Arabic music in Jerusalem. His exposure to Malian music is also a significant influence, having played in Mali with Toumani Diabaté, Super Rail Band, and Habibe Koité.
Anat Fort Anat Fort Anat Fort was born in 1970 near Tel Aviv. She is an Israeli jazz, pianist and composer who has recorded several acclaimed albums and performed across Europe and the United States.  She moved to New York in 1996 to develop her skills in jazz improvisation under the guidance of pianist Paul Bley and study composition with Harold Seletsky.
Aaron Goldberg Aaron Goldberg Aaron Goldberg was born in Boston. He began taking piano lessons at 7, and started playing jazz when he was 14. In November 2014, Goldberg released The Now, a 10-song album of his own compositions, jazz standards, and reworkings of Brazilian songs.
Gilad Hekselman Gilad Hekselman Gilad is the winner of the 2005 Gibson Montreux International Guitar Competition. He has played all major jazz clubs in New York City including the Blue Note, The Jazz Standard, Dizzy’s Club and Smalls.
Tamir Hendelman Tamir Hendelman Tamir moved to the US at age 12 in 1984, winning Yamaha’s national keyboard competition 2 years later at age 14. Concerts in Japan and the Kennedy Center followed.   In his own trio, he explores standards, Brazilian music, blues and his Israeli roots.
Nitai Hershkovits Nitai Hershkovits Born in Israel to a Morrocan mother and a Polish father, Nitai started playing the clarinet at age 12, only to discover his love for the piano at age 15.  Nitai has been collaborating with internationally acclaimed bassist and composer Avishai Cohen.
Yaron Herman Yaron Herman Yaron Herman was born in Tel Aviv. He moved to Boston, where he intended to attend the Berklee College of Music but rapidly preferred to start his career in Paris.
Ori Kaplan Ori Kaplan Ori Kaplan is a jazz saxophonist and a music producer who moved from Israel to the United States in 1991.  In 2004 he formed Balkan Beat Box with Tamir Muskat. The band has been touring globally since and has released 4 albums thus far.
Assaf Kehati Assaf Kehati Jazz guitarist and composer Assaf Kehati arrived to the USA from Israel in 2007.  Mr. Kehati has performed at some of the world’s leading venues including the Blue Note; the DC Jazz Festival; MuzEnergo Jazz Festival, Tel Aviv Museum, Barranquilla Jazz Festival; and Toronto Jazz Festival.
Avi Lebovich Avi Lebovich
Avi Lebovich was born in Yahud, Israel and began studying classical piano at age 9. When he reached 13, he switched to the trombone and attended the “Thelma Yellin School of Arts”.  He moved to New York in 1992, where he attended “New School University” and “Mannes College of Music”.
Shai Maestro Shai Maestro Pianist Shai Maestro was born in Israel on February 5th 1987. He began playing classical piano at the age of 5. Maestro joined Avishai Cohen’s Trio together with drummer Mark Guiliana where he played for 5 years around the globe.  In 2011, Maestro left Cohen’s group to pursue his own career as a band leader.
Rafi Malkiel Rafi Malkiel Born in Jerusalem in 1972, Malkiel currently resides in New York where he has established himself as a mainstay on that city’s jazz and Latin music.  Malkiel’s critically acclaimed debut album “My Island” features original compositions and his arrangements of popular Latin and jazz classics.
Dan Mayo Dan Mayo Dan Mayo was born in Israel in 1990. He is a drummer, composer and educator well known for his playing and composing with TATRAN, a power-trio with Tamuz Dekel on guitar and Offir Benjaminov on the bass.
Omri Mor Omri Mor Omri Mor was born in 1983 and raised in Jerusalem. He studied classical music at the Jerusalem Rubin Academy of Music. He studied Andalousian-style music with Nino “Elmaghribi” Biton.  He plays regularly in jazz festivals in Israel and abroad.
Ziv Ravitz Ziv Ravitz Ziv Ravitz was born in Beersheba and focused on percussion at the ripe old age of 13.  He lives and works in New York, and recently released the album Everyday with Yaron Herman.
Issi Rozen Issi Rozen Issi Rozen is an Israeli-born jazz guitarist currently residing in Boston, Massachusetts. He has been recognized for mixing traditional middle-eastern and straight jazz elements into his music. In 2002, Rozen began teaching guitar and music theory at Berklee College of Music.
Harold Rubin Harold Rubin Harold Rubin is a South African-born Israeli visual artist and free jazz clarinettist.  He moved to Israel in 1962. Rubin returned to playing jazz in late 1979, having previously given up performance for more than a decade after his emigration from Africa.
Yotam Silberstein Yotam Silberstein Tel Aviv native Yotam Silberstein began playing guitar at age 10. By the age of 21, Silberstein has won the coveted “Israeli Jazz Player of The Year.”  Yotam Silberstein moved to New York in 2005.   He has won the Sundance Time Warner award for film music.
Ofir Shwartz Ofir Shwartz Ofir Shwartz was born in Haifa. He is an Israeli award-winning jazz pianist, composer, arranger and producer.  He is one of the leading Israeli touring musicians.
Asaf Sirkis Asaf Sirkis Asaf was born in 1969 in Petah-Tikva, Israel. At the age of 12 Asaf began drum lessons, while also having a strong interest in playing electric bass. In October 1998, Asaf left Israel and settled in London in April 1999. He soon become part of the UK Jazz and world music scene.
Assif Tsahar Assif Tsahar Assif Tsahar was born in Israel in 1969. He is a tenor saxophonist and bass clarinetist. He has lived in New York City since 1990.  He founded the label Hopscotch Records in 1999. In 2006 he opened the music club Levontin7 with Daniel Sarid in Tel Aviv.
Sam Yahel Sam Yahel A Hammond B-3 specialist, keyboardist Sam Yahel is a progressive musician with a bent toward mixing expansive post-bop and cerebral organ trio funk . Since moving to New York City in 1990, Yahel has performed and recorded with a wide array of name musicians.